Pneumonia is a common illness affecting approximately 450 million people a year and occurring in all parts of the world. It is a major cause of death among all age groups resulting in 4 million deaths per annum (7% of the world's yearly total), of which 1.3 million infant deaths. Diagnosis is not straight forward, nor is it easy to distinguish between bacterial and viral forms of the disease (and hence the most appropriate treatment pathway.) Current testing is done using a number of indicative tests which do not detect for the bacilli themselves, ie using blood counts, sputum and X-ray screening; all of which are non-specific. In the Third World it is often diagnosed instead of TB, causing catastrophic problems with the TB cure rates (30% in Ethiopia.) Thus a definitive test for bacterial pneumonia is paramount.